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ⓘ Ishmaeli. Mungu alikuwa amemuahidia Abrahamu uzao mkubwa kama nyota za mbinguni, naye akaamini ingawa alikuwa hajapata hata mtoto mmoja: ndiyo imani iliyompende ..




Ishmaeli
                                     

ⓘ Ishmaeli

Mungu alikuwa amemuahidia Abrahamu uzao mkubwa kama nyota za mbinguni, naye akaamini ingawa alikuwa hajapata hata mtoto mmoja: ndiyo imani iliyompendeza sana Mungu Mwa 15:1-6.

Lakini Abrahamu alizidi kuzeeka pamoja na Sara bila ya kuzaa watoto. Baada ya kusubiri muda mrefu mno Sara akamwambia azaliane na Hagari aliye mtumishi wa kike. Mwana huyu wa Hagar akaitwa Ishmaeli Mwa 16:1-15. Lakini baadaye kukawa na fitina kati ya Sara na Hagari hivyo huyo akafukuzwa pamoja na mtoto, baada ya Sara pia akashika mimba na kumzaa mtoto Isaka.

Mwa 21:1-21 inatusimulia jinsi Mungu alivyotimiza ahadi yake kwa kumjalia Sara amzalie Abrahamu mtoto huyo katika uzee na utasa. Isaka ni mtoto wa imani, si wa mwili, naye ni huru, tofauti na Ishmaeli mtoto wa mtumwa ambaye hastahili kurithi pamoja na mdogo wake. Isaka, baba wa Israeli alipata baraka kuu, naye ni mfano wetu watu wa Agano Jipya. Ishmaeli alibarikiwa pia kwa ajili ya baba yake, naye ni mfano wa Agano la Kale ambapo watu wanategemea mambo ya kimwili na hivyo ni watumwa Gal 4:21-5:1.

Kadiri ya kitabu cha Mwanzo alishiriki pamoja na mdogo wake Isaka mazishi ya baba yake akafariki akiwa na umri wa miaka 137.

Ishmaeli alizaa watoto wa kiume 12 ambao wanahesabiwa mwanzo wa Waarabu, hasa wale wa Kaskazini.

                                     

1. Ishmaeli katika Uislamu

Ishmaeli anahesabiwa nabii muhimu na babu wa Muhammad, mwanzilishi wa dini ya Uislamu.

Ingawa Kurani haitaji jina la mtoto ambaye Abrahamu alikuwa tayari kumchinjia Mungu, wanazuoni walifikia makubaliano kwamba alikuwa Ishmaeli, si Isaka.

                                     

2. Marejeo

Books and journals
  • Metzger, Bruce M; Michael D Coogan 1993. The Oxford Companion To The Bible. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-504645-8.
  • Nikaido, S. 2001. "Hagar and Ishmael as Literary Figures: An Intertextual Study". Vetus Testamentum 51 2: 219.
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  • Quinn, Daniel 1993. Ishmael. Bantam Dell Pub Group. ISBN 0-553-56166-9.
  • Werblowsky, R.J. Zwi; Geoffrey Wigoder 1997. The Oxford Dictionary of Jewish Religion. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-508605-8.
Encyclopedias
  • Hubert Cancik, ed. 2005. Brills New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World: Antiquity. Brill Academic Publishers.
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  • Paul Lagasse, Lora Goldman, Archie Hobson, Susan R. Norton, ed. 2000. The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed. Gale Group.
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  • John Bowden, ed. 2005. Encyclopedia of Christianity 1st ed. Oxford University Press.
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  • P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs, ed. Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Brill Academic Publishers.
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  • Lindsay Jones, ed. 2005. Encyclopedia of Religion 2nd ed. MacMillan Reference Books.
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  • The New Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Incorporated; Rev Ed edition. 2005.
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  • Jane Dammen McAuliffe, ed. 2005. Encyclopedia of the Quran. Brill Academic Publishers.
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3. Viungo vya nje

  • Biographical Study on Ishmael Archived Januari 4, 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  • The Jewish Encyclopedia: Ishmael.
  • Ishmael in Islam
  • Genealogy from Adam to the Twelve Tribes
  • Ishmael in Baháí Faith Archived Desemba 26, 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  • "Ismael". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. 1913/Ismael.
                                     
  • Luut لوط, Sura 26, 162 Lut Ismail au Ismaili إسماعيل, Sura 19, 54 Ishmaeli Ishaq au Isihaka إسحاق, Sura 19, 49 Isaka Ya qub au Yakubu يعقوب
  • utasa. Isaka ni mtoto wa imani, si wa mwili, naye ni huru, tofauti na Ishmaeli mtoto wa mtumwa ambaye hastahili kurithi pamoja na mdogo wake. Isaka, baba
  • utasa. Isaka ni mtoto wa imani, si wa mwili, naye ni huru, tofauti na Ishmaeli mtoto wa mtumwa ambaye hastahili kurithi pamoja na mdogo wake. Isaka, baba

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